Barnes JE. New York Times, 29 Jul 2001. 2001.
In the USA, the rate of cyclist head injuries has risen 10% although helmet use has soared and cycle use has declined.
Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC. New England Journal of Medicine, 1989 v320 n21 p1361-7. 1989.
Thompson DC, Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Wolf ME. American Journal of Public Health, 1990; 80(12):1471-1474. 1990.
Johns R. Velo City Global, Vancouver 2012. 2012.
The relative costs and moral issues of British Columbia's helmet law
Lee AJ, Mann NP, Takriti R. Injury Prevention, 2000;6:151-153. 2000.
Spaite DW, Murphy M, Criss EA, Valenzuela TD, Meislin HW. Journal of Trauma, 1991 Nov;31(11):1510-6.. 1991.
Spaite DW, Weist EA, David MD, Valenzuela TD, Judkins D, Meislin HW. Journal of Trauma, 1995;38(2):287-290. 1995.
Depreitere B. Catholic University of Leuven. 2004.
Bicycle helmets could not offer sufficient protection to the temporal area against lateral blows. There was no unequivocal beneficial effect of the helmets on the rotational acceleration of the head and on the vibration of the skull base.
Alcohol in fatally injured bicyclists
Li G, Baker SP. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 1994;26(4):543-548. 1994.
Crocker P, Zad O, Milling T, Lawson KA. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2010;28(1):68-72. 2010.
Alcohol use by cyclists is more strongly associated with head and brain injuries than cycle helmets. (Also subsequent letter by D. Robinson doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2010.02.019)
Andersen LB, Schnohr P, Schroll M, Hein HO. Arch Intern Med, 2000 Jun 12;160(11):1621-8. 2000.
Leden L, Garder P, Pulkkinen U. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2000 Jul;32(4):589-99. 2000.
Wardlaw MJ. Traffic Engineering + Control, Dec 2002 p352-356. 2002.
StClair VJM, Chinn BP. Transport Research Laboratory, PPR213. 2007.
Jung CS, Zweckberger K, Schick U, Unterberg AW. J Neurotrauma, 2010 May;27(5):871-5. 2010.
Turner L. Institute of Public Affairs, IPA Review 2012(64):28-29. 2012.
Gillham C, Rissel C. World Transport Policy & Practice, 2012(May);18(3):5-10. 2012.
Rabl A, de Nazelle A. Transport Policy. 2011.
Estimates a health gain benefit from exercise (bicycling) at EUR 1310/year, plus a public health gain of EUR 33/year, vs. -EUR 19/year cost to the individual from air pollution, and -EUR 53/year from accidents. For the individual, that would give a benefit to risk ratio in Euros of 1310/(19+53) or about 18:1.
Attewell RG, Glase K, McFadden M. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2001-05 v33 n3 p345-52. 2001.
Macpherson AK, Spinks A. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007 issue 2 Art. No. CD005401. 2007.
Unable to show that reductions in head injuries after helmet laws were result of helmets rather than decline in cycling.
Robinson DL. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2007;39(1):86-93. 2007.
Suggestions for data and methodology to resolve conflict between case-control studies and trends.
Hagel BE, Rizkallah JW, Lamy A, Belton KL, Jhangri GS, Cherry N, Rowe BH. Injury Prevention, 2006;12:262-265. 2006.
Bicycle helmet usage rates in Victoria, 1990 - 1991
Morgan M, Peberdy J, Rogerson P. Vic Roads, GR91-9 ISBN 073061381X. 1991.
Karkhaneh M. University of Alberta. 2011.
Fyhri A, Bjørnskau T, Backer-Grøndahl A. Transportation Research Part F, 2012;15(5):612-624. 2012.
Helmet laws disproportionately discourage the safest cyclists, who are not speed-happy and who cycle without much cycling equipment. In this way the overall average risk per cyclist is increased and interventions such as helmet laws have no net benefit.
Towner E, Dowswell T, Burkes M, Dickinson H, Towner J, Hayes M. Department for Transport, Road Safety Research Report 30. 2002.
Byard RW, Cala A, Ritchey D, Woodford N.. Medical Journal of Australia, MJA 2011;194(1):49. 2011.
Accidental hanging still occurring due to cycle helmets when worn by children off their bikes.
Curnow WJ. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2007 May;39(3):433-6.. 2007.
Further response on the inadequacy of the Cochrane Review to provide evidence that helmets protect against brain injury.
Curnow WJ. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2008 Apr;19(1):10-15.. 2008.
After helmet legislation was introduced, rates of cycling declined sharply with loss of benefits for health, but the risk of casualty increased. Compulsion to wear a bicycle helmet is detrimental to public health in Australia.
Curnow WJ. Transportation Accident Analysis & Prevention, Nova Science Publishers, Chapter 6. 2008.
A detailed analysis of brain injuries, helmets and legislation
Curnow WJ. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2006 Sep;38(5):833-4.. 2006.
Rebuttal of criticism of Curnow's 2005 paper, The Cochrane Collaboration and Bicycle Helmets.
Sikic M, Kikocka-Walus AA, Gabbe BJ, McDermott FT, Cameron PA. Med J Aust, 2009;190(7):353-356. 2009.
Jacobson GA, Blizzard L, Dwyer T. Austr NZ J Public Health, 1998 Jun;22(4):451-5.. 1998.
Lee BH, Schofer JL, Koppelman FS. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2005;37:93-102. 2005.
Middaugh-Bonney T, Pike I, Brussoni M, Piedt S, Macpherson A. Injury Prevention, 2010;16:A228. 2010.
Although bicycle-related injuries are generally declining, this decline is not consistent, nor is it clearly associated with helmet laws.
Kim JK,Kim S,Ulfarsson GF,Porrello LA. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2007 Mar;39(2):238-51. 2007.
Wasserman RC, Waller JA, Monty MJ, Emery AB, Robinson DR. American Journal of Public Health, 1988 Sep;78(9):1220-1. 1988.
Usually cited as a pro-helmet paper, nevertheless helmet wearers were 7 times more likely to have hit their heads than non-wearers.
Robinson DL. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2001 Sep;33(5):687-91. 2001.
The large increase in helmet wearing as a result of the NZ helmet law has not led to any obvious change in head injuries over and above existing trends.
Cummings P, Rivara FP, Olson CM, Smith KM. Injury Prevention, 2006;12;148-154. 2006.
Bauman A, Titze S, Rissel C, Oja P. Br J Sports Med, 2011;45:761-762. 2011.
A summary of the health benefits and risks of cycling. Describes current controversies and evidence challenges for cycling policy and promotion.
Moyes SA. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43(2007):486-488. 2007.
Since the New Zealand helmet law was enacted, childrens' injuries from bicycle use have increased but there has been a marked reduction in collisions with motor vehicles. This is the result of a change in the way bicycles are used by children. (This suggests that any reduction in head injuries post-law would be at least in part because children face less serious injuries as they now cycle much less in traffic)
McCarthy M. Child Care Health Dev, 1996 Mar;22(2):105-11. 1996.
Cycle helmets give very limited protection and shift the blame onto children if they are injured even though adult motorists are often at fault. 5 times as many child pedetrians die after road crashes than child cyclists.
Knowles J, Adams S, Cuerden R, Savill T, Reid S, Tight M. Transport Research Laboratory, PPR445. 2009.
Povey LJ, Frith WJ, Graham PG. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 1999 Nov;31(6):763-70. 1999.
. BMA Board of Science and Education, ISBN 0-7279-1430-8. 1999.
The wearing of helmets by cyclists should not be made compulsory, but the wearing of helmets – preferably to the Snell B95 standard – should be encouraged.
Lee AJ, Mann MP. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2003;88:465-466. 2003.
Hewson PJ. Traffic Injury Prevention, 2005;6(2):127-134. 2005.
There is no evidence that cycle helmets reduce the overall cyclist injury burden at the population level in the UK when data on road casualties is examined.
Hillman M. Policy Studies Institute, ISBN 0-85374-602-8. 1993.
At best, helmets only marginally reduce a cyclist's chance of being fatally or serious injured. The balance of evidence does not suggest that a helmet law would reduce the level of head injuries. Similarly, encouraging voluntary helmet use is unlikely to reduce the risk of head injury. The primary means of reducing serious head injury is to create an environment in which crashes are less likely to occur.
Andersson AL, Bunketorp O. Injury, 2002;33(6):467-471. 2002.
Gill T. National Children's Bureau. 2005.
"Those ... who cycle should be under no illusion that helmets offer reliable protection in crash situations where our lives may be in danger. Neither should we believe that widespread adoption of helmet wearing would see many fewer cyclists killed or permanently disabled. The evidence so far suggests otherwise."
Garrard J, Greaves S, Ellison A. Australasian College of Road Safety, ACRS 2010;21(3):37-43. 2010.
Bloomfield A. Making Cycling Viable symposium. 2000.
Opinion from neurosurgeon that helmets had made some head injuries worse. Need to reconsider issue as legislation has not delivered benefits predicted.
Gilbert K, McCarthy M. BMJ, BMJ;1994:308(6943):1534-7. 1994.
30% of cyclists' deaths in outer London and 58% in inner London involve heavy good vehicles. Helmets do not address the source of danger in crashes where the injury is severe or fatal. Helmets restrict cyclists rather than motor vehicles.
Dorsch MM, Woodward AJ, Somers RL. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1987 Jun;19(3):183-90. 1987.
McCarthy M, Illingworth C. BMJ, 1992 v305 p881-3. 1992.
Cycling is safe, green and healthy. The main study supporting cycle helmet use is useless as policy guidance as it compared quite different groups of cyclists. Cycle helmets do not improve safety and place responsibility for injury protection on the victim.
Burton R. University of the West of England. 2008.
Robinson DL. BMJ, 2006;332:722-725. 2006.
There is no clear evidence of benefit from countries that have enforced the wearing of cycle helmets.
de Hartog JJ, Boogaard H, Nijland H, Hoek G. Environmental Health Perspectives, doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901747. 2010.
On average, the estimated health benefits of cycling were substantially larger than the risks relative to car driving for individuals shifting mode of transport. Estimated benefit to risk ratios of 9:1 (in Holland) and 7:1 (in Britain) in terms of years of life gained to lost.
Macpherson AK, Macarthur C, To TM, Chipman ML, Wright JG, Parkin PC. Injury Prevention, 2006;12:231-235. 2006.
LeBlanc JC, Beattie TL, Culligan C. Canadian Medical Association Journal, CMAJ 2002;166(5): p592-5. 2002.
Thomas S, Acton CH, Nixon J, Battistutta D, Pitt WR, Clark R. BMJ, 1994;308:173-176. 1994.
Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS.. JAMA, 1996 Dec 25;276(24):1968-73. 1996.
Thompson DC, Nunn ME, Thompson RS, Rivara FP. JAMA, 1996a;276(24):1974-1975. 1996.
Amoros E, Chiron M, Ndiaye A, Laumon B. INRETS, Lyon, Rapport UMRESTTE No0912. 2009.
Vuillemin A. INRETS. 2009.
Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Thompson RS. Injury Prevention, 1997 3: 110-114. 1997.
Linn S, Smith D, Sheps S. Injury Prevention, 1998;4:122-125. 1998.
de Jong P. Macquarie University NSW. 2009.
Net health costs of helmet laws greatly outweigh the safety benefits.
Clarke CF. New Zealand Medical Journal, 2012;125(1349). 2012.
A halving of cycle use may have led to around 53 additional premature deaths each year. At the same time cyclist injuries have more than doubled compared to pedestrians.
Carr D, Dyte D, Cameron MH. Monash University Accident Research Centre, Report 76. 1995.
. Scottish Executive Social Research. 2005.
Fewer head and face injuries with helmets, but no effect on injuries serious enough to require hospital admission or other ongoing treatment.
Fahrradunfälle mit und ohne Fahrradhelm
Hausotter W. Versicherungsmedizin, 52:28-32. 2000.
Sage MD, Cairns FJ, Koelmeyer TD, Smeeton WMI. NZ Med J, Vol 98, No793, pp1073-1074, 1985. 1985.
"This study indicates that compulsory wearing of suitable safety helmets by cyclists is unlikely to lead to a great reduction in fatal injuries, despite their enthusiastic advocacy". Includes death of helmeted cyclist in simple fall without involvement of motor vehicle."
Mills NJ, Gilchrist A. Int Journal of Impact Engineering, 2008;35(9):1087-1101. 2008.
Chipman ML. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2002 Mar 5;166(5):602. 2002.
Although the proportion of cyclists wearing helmets increased in Nova Scotia following helmet legislation and the number of head injuries fell, the main effect of the law was a large decrease in the number of people cycling.
Robinson DL. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 1996 Jul;28(4):463-75. 1996.
The most notable effect of helmet laws in Australia has been to reduce cycling, and this may have generated a net loss of health benefits to the nation. The risk of dying from head injury per hour is similar for unhelmeted cyclists and motor vehicle occupants, and a helmet law for motorists has the potential to save 17 times as many lives as a cycle helmet law.
Robinson DL. 2005.
An assessment of the helmet laws. There is little benefit to either cyclists or the community from passing laws forcing cyclists to wear helmets. Rather than encouraging cyclists to wear helmets, the laws appear to have discouraged cycling, resulting in reduced health and fitness, but very little change in the head injury rate. Indeed, risks per cyclist seem to have increased, compared to what would have been expected without the law.
Scuffham P, Alsop J, Cryer C, Langley JD. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2000 Jul;32(4):565-73. 2000.
Niedfeldt MW. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2011 Nov;10(6):324-9. 2011.
The universal use of soccer helmets may lead to more aggressive heading and head challenges, thus leading to an increased risk of injury.
Walker B. Cycle, Jun/Jul 2005. 2005.
Helmets offer only limited protection in simple low-speed falls with no other vehicle involved. Helmet standards have declined greatly in recent years yet most helmets do not meet the standards to which they are accredited. The courts remain to be convinced that helmets can be relied upon to provide useful protection in most crashes.
Mindell JS, Watkins SJ, Cohen JM. Transport & Health Study Group. 2011.
Cycling has great potential to assist public health programmes and reduce road danger. Fair comparison proves that the risks of cycling are within the range to which drivers and pedestrians are exposed. The most careful long-term studies do not reveal evidence of noticeable prevention of serious head injuries with rising helmet use.
Bruhwiler PA, Buyan M, Huber R, Bogerd CP, Sznitman J, Graf SF, Rosgen T. J Sports Sci, 2006 Sep;24(9):999-1011. 2006.
Lack of systematic understanding of the principles behind bicycle helmet ventilation, which varies considerably between helmets.
Robinson DL, Acton CH. Injury Prevention, 1998;4:170-172. 1998.
Complementary articles, for and against the effectiveness of helmets.
Robinson DL. Velo City 2007. 2007.
Dennis J, Ramsay T, Turgeon AF, Zarychanski R. British Medical Journal, BMJ 2013;346:f2674. 2013.
Wasserman RC, Buccini RV. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 1990 Jan-Feb;18(1):96-7. 1990.
Heng KWJ, Lee AH, Zhu S, Tham KY, Seow E. Singapore Medical Journal, 2006;47(5):367-372. 2006.
Bonyun M, Camden A, Macarthur C, Howard A. BMJ Open, 2012 Jun 18;2(3). pii: e001049. 2012.
Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS.. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue 4, 2002. 2002.
Shafi S, Gilbert JC, Loghmanee F, Allen JE, Caty MG, Glick PL, Carden S, Azizhan RG. J Paediatric Surgery, 1998 Feb;33(2):317-21. 1998.
Macpherson AK, To TM, Macarthur C, Chipman ML, Wright JG, Parkin PC. Pediatrics, 2002; 110(5):e60. 2002.
Matthews CE, Jurj AL, Shu Xo, Li HL, Yang G, Li Q, Cao YT, Zheng W. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2007 165(12):1343-1350. 2007.
Frank E, Frankel P, Mullins RJ, Taylor N. Academic Emergency Medicine, 1995;2(3):200-203. 1995.
Tin Tin S, Woodward A, Ameratunga S. BMC Public Health, 2010, 10:655. 2010.
Since the helmet law, the number of cyclists admitted to hospital has increased notwithstanding a large fall in cycle use. There has particularly been an increase in off-road casualties.
Maimaris C, Summers CL, Browning C, Palmer CR. BMJ, 1994 Jun 11;308(6943):1537-40. 1994.
Powell KE. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 1998;30:1246-1249. 1998.
Fewer people reported injuries from cycling than any of the other activities.
Carpenter CS,Stehr MF. Journal of Law and Economics, Vol 54 No2 May 2011. 2011.
In America, 650,000 fewer children ride bikes each year after helmet laws go into effect. Study has its weaknesses.
Schnohr P, Marott JL, Jensen JS, Jensen GB. Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2012 Feb;19(1):73-80. 2012.
Relative intensity of cycling, and not the duration of cycling, is of more importance in relation to all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality. Adults should prefer brisk cycling to slow.
Hewson PJ. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2005;37(5):807-815. 2005.
Head injuries are declining for child cyclists and pedestrians, but this is not related to helmet wearing data.
BMA. BMA. 2004.
Sheikh A, Cook A, Ashcroft R. J R Soc Med, J R Soc Med 2004;97:262-265. 2004.
Erke A, Elvik R. TOI, Norwegian Centre for Transport Research, Report 889/2007. 2007.
There is evidence of increased accident risk per cycling-km for cyclists wearing a helmet. Meta analyses of helmet benefit are very likely affected by publication bias and methodological flaws. Increasing the amount of cycling would decrease accident risk.
Macpherson AK, Parkin PC, To TM. Injury Prevention, Inj Prev 2001;7:228-230. 2001.
Cook A. Significance, Dec 2004;1;4:162-3. 2004.
Corner JP, Whitney CW, O'Rourke N, Morgan De. Federal Office of Road Safety, Report CR55. 1987.
Taylor M, Scuffham P. Injury Prevention, 2002;8:317-320. 2002.
Robinson DL. BMJ, 2006;332:722-725. 2006.
There is no clear evidence of benefit from countries that have enforced the wearing of cycle helmets.
Mills NJ, Gilchrist A. Int Journal of Impact Engineering, 2008;35(9):1075-1086. 2008.
Davis R. Death on the Streets chapter 11, ISBN 0-948135-46-8. 1992.
No conclusive benefit from helmets, but they do deflect attention away from dangerous driving.
Downing CS. Ways to Safer Cycling conference. 1985.
Cycle helmets have potential to reduce cyclist casualties by less than 1%, compared with 27% for developments in training and engineering.
Roberts I, Owen H, Lumb P, MacDougall C. 1996.
Australian assessment of health benefits of cycling. A commitment to cycling will result in a far healthier community.
Leden L. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2002;34:457#64. 2002.
Curran ALM. British Medical Association. 2008.
Pucher J, Dijkstra L. American Journal of Public Health, 2003;93(9):1509-1516. 2003.
Keatinge R, Parry R. BMJ, 1994;309:1441 (26 Nov). 1994.
Protection afforded by cycle helmets
McDermott FT, Lane JC. British Medical Journal, BMJ 1994;309:877. 1994.
Hansen KS, Engesaeter LB, Viste A. Traffic Inj Prev, 2003;4(4):285-290. 2003.
Haines A, McMichael AJ, Smith KR, Roberts I, Woodcock J, Markandva A, Armstrong BG et al. The Lancet, 2009; 374(9707):2104-2114. 2009.
Active travel (cycling and walking)in London gives an increase of 5496 life-years per million of population, against a loss of 418 due to injuries, a ratio of 13:1. Or 15:1 using disability adjusted data.
Woodcock J, Edwards P, Tonne C, Armstrong BG, Ashiru O, Banister D, Beevers S, Chalabi Z, et al. The Lancet, 2009;374(9705):1930-1943. 2009.
Elvik R. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2011;43(3):1245-1251. 2011.
Attewell et al influenced by publication and time-trend biases. When controlled for, the protective effects of helmets are smaller. Adding new studies, no overall benefit of helmets found.
Publication bias in meta-analysis. Prevention, assessment and adjustments
Rothstein H, Sutton AJ, Borenstein M. John Wiley & Sons. 2005.
Franklin J, Chapman G. BHRF. 2005.
Rodgers GB. Journal of Products Liability, 1988 ,11:307-317. 1988.
The largest ever cycling casualty study involving over 8 million cases of injury and death to cyclists in the USA over 15 years. It concluded that there was no evidence that hard shell helmets had reduced the head injury and fatality rates. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between fatalities and helmet use (i.e. helmeted riders were more likely to be killed).
Rissel C. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2003;14(3):151-153. 2003.
Emphasis on helmets has deterred many people from achieving the health benefits of cycling.
Phillips RO, Fyhri A, Sagberg F. Risk Analysis, 2011; Mar 18. 2011.
Field study, the findings of which are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster.
Pless IB, Magdalinos H, Hagel B. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2006;160(6):610-614. 2006.
Mok D, Gore G, Hagel B, Mok E, Magdalinos H, Pless IB. Paediatr Child Health, 2004;9(5):327-330. 2004.
First empirical evidence of risk compensation when cycling. Injured children who had worn helmets rode faster and suffered more damage to their bikes.
Thompson DC, Thompson RS, Rivara FP. Injury Prevention, 2002;8:e1-e1. 2002.
Part of debate between authors pro- and against the theory of risk compensation.
Messiah A, Constant A, Contrand B, Felonneau ML, Lagarde E. American Journal of Public Health, May 2012;102(S2):S204-S206. 2012.
Robinson DL. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2005;16:47-51. 2005.
Following the introduction of compulsory helmets for cyclists, there was a 30% reduction in cycling and it was associated with a higher risk of death or serious injury per cyclist, outweighing any benefits of increased helmet wearing.
Jacobsen PL. Injury Prevention, 2003;9:205-209. 2003.
Gill M, Goldacre M. Injury Prevention, 2009;15:374-78. 2009.
Berry JG, Harrison JE. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Inj Res & Stat Series No.38. 2007.
Helmeted cyclists have about the same percentage of head injuries (27.4%) as unhelmeted car occupants and pedestrians (28.5%). Wearing a helmet seems to have no discernible impact on the risk of head injury.
Jensen SU, Hummer CH. Danmarks Transport Forskning, Rapport 3, 2002. 2002.
Helmet promotion may be responsible for a generation opting for driving instead of cycling.
Smeed RJ. J R Stat Soc A, 1949:1-34. 1949.
Möllman FT, Rieger B, Wassmann H. DGNC Köln. 2004.
No significant difference concerning the level of head-trauma due to bicycle accident between cyclists wearing a helmet and others.
Coronado VG, Xu L, Basavaraju SV, McGuire LC, Wald MM, Faul MD, Guzman BR, Hemphill JD. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 6, 2011 / 60(SS05);1-32. 2011.
Littell JH, Corcoran J, Pillai V. Oxford University Press, ISBN13: 9780195326543. 2008.
Curnow WJ. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2005;37(3):569-573. 2005.
Review takes no account of scientific knowledge of types and mechanisms of brain injury and is not a reliable guide to the efficacy of helmets and to interventions concerning their use.
Grant D, Rutner SM. Journal of Public Policy, 2004;23(23). 2004.
Fatalities reduce 15% in the long term, but this can't be only because of legislation. Nationally a 12% reduction in fatalities was associated with a 21% reduction in bicycle use.
McDermott FT, Lane JC, Brazenore GA, Debney EA. Journal of Trauma, 1993; 34(6):834-845. 1993.
Voukelatos A, Rissel C. Australasian College of Road Safety, ACRS 2010;21(3):50-55. 2010.
Helmets were not the main reason for the drop in head injuries in Australia since helmet laws were introduced. General improvement in road safety from random breath testing and other measures were probably the cause.
Finvers KA, Strother RT, Mohtadi N. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1996 Apr;6(2):102-7. 1996.
Dennis J, Potter B, Ramsay T, Zarychanski R. Injury Prevention, 2010;16:219-24. 2010.
The effects of wearing protective helmets on attentional processes in young cricketers
Neave N, Emmett J, Moss M, Scholey A, Wesnes K. Northumbria University, Cognitive Science Unit. 2004.
The wearing of cricket helmets slows reaction time due to heating the brain
Curnow WJ. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2003,35:287-292. 2003.
The meta-analysis of case-control studies does not provide scientific evidence that such helmets reduce serious injury to the brain as it does not distinguish injuries caused through fracture of the skull and by angular acceleration.
de Jong P. Risk Analysis. 2012.
In jurisdictions where cycling is safe, a helmet law is likely to have a large unintended negative health impact. In jurisdictions where cycling is relatively unsafe, helmets will do little to make it safer and a helmet law, under relatively extreme assumptions, may make a small positive contribution to net societal health. The model serves to focus the mandatory bicycle helmet law debate on overall health.
Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Tainio M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. British Medical Journal, BMJ 2011; 343:d4521 . 2011.
The health benefits of cycling exceed the risks by 77:1, even in a busy city where few people wear helmets.
Walter SR, Olivier J, Churches T, Grzebieta R.. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2011 Nov;43(6):2064-71. 2011.
This study claims to be the last word in showing that helmet laws are beneficial.
Rissel C. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2012;45:107-109. 2012.
This paper challenges Walter, Olivier, Churches and Grzebieta, 2011 detailing many shortcomings that are said to make its conclusions invalid.
Schofield GM,Gianotti S,Badland HM,Hinckson EA. Preventive Medicine, 2008 Jan;46(1):74-76. 2008.
School-related travel, including cycling, is a relatively safe activity contributing to a minority of all injuries sustained by youth.
Rissel C, Wen LM. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2011; 22: 178-83. 2011.
Hynd D, Cuerden R, Reid S, Adams S. Transport Research Laboratory, PPR446. 2009.
Despite attempts to manipulate the results, one of the largest reviews of the evidence has not been able to find any reliable evidence that helmets have benefited cyclists
Adams J, Hillman M. Injury Prevention, 2002;8:e1-e1. 2002.
Part of debate between authors pro- and against the theory of risk compensation.
Olkkonen S, Honkanen R. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 1990;22(1):89-96. 1990.
Wardlaw MJ. BMJ, 2000-12-23/30 n321 p1582-5. 2000.
Cycling has a fine safety record; driving does not. The statistical wrangle over cycle helmets is a side issue; helmet promotion engenders the impression that cycling has become much more hazardous than driving, which deters cycling and increases risk for those who continue to cycle.
Mees P, Sorupia E, Stone J. GAMUT - Australian Centre for the Governance and Management of Urban Transport. 2007.
Scuffham PA, Langley JD. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1997 Jan;29(1):1-9. 1997.
In the 12 months prior to the introduction of a helmet law, helmet wearing in New Zealand rose to 84% for primary school children, 62% for secondary school children and 39% for adults. However, there was no evidence that increased helmet use had resulted in fewer serious head injuries.
Williamson LM, Morrison A, Stone DH. J Epidemiol Community Health, 2002;56;285-288. 2002.
Ming J, Gilchick RA, Bender SJ. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2006;38(1):128-134. 2006.
No significant reduction in serious head injury over study period. Serious head injuries rose as helmet use grew fastest. Although one of the most popular areas for cycling in the USA, the incidence of serious head injury was low.
Wesson D, Stephens D, Lam K, Parsons D, Spence L, Parkin P. Pediatrics, 2008;122:605-610. 2008.
Cook A, Sheikh A. BMJ, 2000;321:1055. 2000.
Cook A, Sheikh A. Injury Prevention, 2003;9:266-267. 2003.
Morrongiello BA, Walpole B, Lasenby J. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2007 May;39(3):618-23. 2007.
Children went more quickly and behaved more recklessly when wearing safety gear (including helmets) than when not wearing gear providing evidence of risk compensation.
Li G, Baker SP, Smialek JE,Soderstrom CA. JAMA, 2001;285(7):893-896. 2001.
Bauman A, Merom D, Rissel C. Prev Med, 2012 Feb;54(2):145-7. 2012.
There are many more bikes being sold in Australia than are being used.